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During the Civil War, the defense establishment at Alcatraz Citadel had the onerous task to defuse the possibility of any local war between the Union and Confederate supporters who were both part of the population of California, and to protect San Francisco.

Ammunition in the form of 10, muskets and , cartridges was supplied to the fort, which made the Fort Alcatraz and the island most impregnable and thus leaving any plans of the Confederate soldiers of taking control of the San Francisco Bay and California State could be taken under its fold was thwarted.

In March , when there was a threat that the San Francisco Bay would be captured by the Confederates, the schooner , which was to carry out the operation set sail; the U.

Navy prevented the schooner from moving out and captured the crew along with ammunition and 15 confederates who were hiding in the galleys of the ship.

Consequent to this, the importance of Alcatraz increased, more and more confederates and civilians were arrested for reasons of treason and kept in the military prison, and to accommodate the increased number of prisoners, a temporary makeshift wooden prison was built in to the north of the guardhouse.

At the time of end of the Civil War in , there were more than one hundred cannons in the island, which were never put to any aggressive battle, but used only once to provide gun salute in honor of President Abraham Lincoln at his official funeral procession held in San Francisco.

As the civil war ended, the military prison housed Confederate sympathizers who celebrated Lincoln's death. During the Indian Wars that followed the civil war, Indians who went against the government were sent to the Alcatraz prison.

The first hospital on Alcatraz opened in As the number of prisoners to be housed in the citadel increased, more space was built in the form of the Upper Prison, which consisted of three wooden structures, each of two tiers, with the lower prison getting converted as a workshop.

However, both Upper and Lower Prison cells, being made of wood, were frequently subject to fire hazards, and this led to change of the structural form of the barracks; concrete structures were built, replacing the wooden ones.

In , an upper prison building was built at a higher level on the island and replaced the lower prison, with a capacity of inmates. Alcatraz was barely affected by the San Francisco earthquake which devastated the city, and the prison population dramatically increased as prisoners were temporarily transferred to the island due to damage in the city.

Military Prison solely. Disciplinary Barracks for the U. Many of the former underground tunnels and chambers of the original fort remain today and are still accessible.

This building was modernized in when it reopened as a federal penitentiary, the notorious Alcatraz prison which held America's most ruthless criminals until During the World War I , the citadel was used for incarcerating military prisoners as also German Prisoners of War, which necessitated building of a larger building structure by demolishing the old upper and lower prisons.

A new cell house formed of four cell blocks with cells was built, in , which at that time was reported to be the largest reinforced concrete building in the world; the cells had toilet and electricity facilities.

Even though the prison was a military establishment, it had its fair share of prison escapes. In the prison escape of November 28, , there were four prisoners who escaped in rafts, and they were seen at Sutro Forest.

However, only one was caught and the others escaped. Due to high costs of maintenance of the Alcatraz as a defense establishment, a well thought out plan was mooted to convert it into the Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary.

Also during this period crime rate had escalated in the country due to the great depression with prohibition further exacerbating the situation resulting in mobsters and gangsters operating freely indulging in looting, violence and killings, with the law enforcing agencies failing to cope with the situation; prison escapes had become the order of the day.

The suggestion to convert the Military Prison into a Federal Penitentiary was welcomed by the President Herbert Hoover and thus the maximum-security prison was created.

The proposal for transfer of Alcatraz to the Bureau of Prisons was initiated in October and after a vigorous adaption from the military prison throughout , it opened in August , ending some eighty years of U.

Army occupation. With this change of guard, 32 hardcore prisoners remained at Alcatraz while the rest were shifted to the prisons at Fort Leavenworth , Kansas, United States Penitentiary, Atlanta , Fort Jay , New Jersey and several others.

The main mode of transport accessing the island was the General McPherson. Upon embarking at the port, the main grounds would be reached by a "long dreary corridor" known as the sally port and a drawbridge surrounded by a dry moat , 12 feet 3.

Other buildings included the Batteries of Rosecranz and Halleck in the north, the barracks building in the northeast, the Battery of McClellan and Fog Bell House in the south, the Battery of McPherson in the west and the Batteries of Stevens and Mansfield in the northwest and the lighthouse aside the main citadel.

Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. The Fading Voices of Alcatraz. Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 6 September University of Illinois Press.

Southwest Ghost Hunters Association. Retrieved 5 September. National Park Service. This building was modernized in when it reopened as a federal penitentiary, the notorious Alcatraz prison which held America's most ruthless criminals until In Alcatraz was renamed the "Pacific Branch, U.

Disciplinary Barracks", to indicate that rehabilitation as well as punishment were to be provided. Soldiers with minor offences could be re-trained and returned to the army.

Although the facility was a military establishment, it had its fair share of prison escapes. In the prison escape of November 28, , there were four prisoners who escaped in rafts, and they were seen at Sutro Forest.

However, only one was caught and the others escaped. With a small peacetime budget, and a small military, the Army was amenable to transferring the post to the Bureau of Prisons which sought a high-security site to combat prison escapes and prison breaks connected to the Prohitition and Depression-era crime wave.

Modernization of the prison began in October and Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary opened in August , ending some eighty years of U. Army occupation.

The main mode of transport accessing the island was the General McPherson. Alcatraz Citadel consisted of a basement, which contained the kitchen, bakery, bedrooms, storerooms and jail cells, and two levels above ground which contained the military personnel quarters, servant quarters, parlors and a mess room.

Other buildings included Batteries Rosecranz and Halleck in the north, the barracks building in the northeast, Battery McClellan and Fog Bell House in the south, Battery McPherson in the west and Batteries Stevens and Mansfield in the northwest and the lighthouse aside the main citadel.

Battery McClellan was equipped with a inch Rodman gun weighing over 25 tons, capable of launching a pound explosive 4, yards when angled at 25 degrees.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Alcatraz Citadel. This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

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University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 5 September National Park Service. San Francisco Bay Shoreline Guide. University of California Press.

Lucent Books. A History of Alcatraz Island:: Arcadia Publishing. March 19, Retrieved March 7, The military also used the island as a training ground for soldiers.

New troops continually arrived on the island, underwent training, and departed for other assignments. With many new enlistees, the military personnel on Alcatraz increased to over by the end of April The army slowly increased the number of men assigned to Alcatraz throughout the Civil War, reaching a high point of men in early The army shipped most of these soldiers out to the Southwestern frontier; however, some were sent to battlefields in the East.

Alcatraz: History and Design of a Landmark. Chronicle Books. Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 18 August February 27, Seeds of the Kingdom: Utopian Communities in the Americas.

Oxford University Press. University of Oklahoma Press. Federal Bureau of Prisons. Hidden categories: Accuracy disputes from January All accuracy disputes Coordinates on Wikidata Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November All Wikipedia articles needing clarification.

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Army engineer James B. McPherson , later to become a prominent general during the Civil War, was one of the earliest commanders to serve on Alcatraz in The citadel had housing capacity for soldiers with food storage facility to last for four months in case of any long drawn attack.

Artillery, before departing from the island in on the outbreak of the Civil War. In , the citadel commenced function as a prison, with tiny new cells being added to the basement, and in was extended, becoming a long-term military prison in During the Civil War, the defense establishment at Alcatraz Citadel had the onerous task to defuse the possibility of any local war between the Union and Confederate supporters who were both part of the population of California, and to protect San Francisco.

Ammunition in the form of 10, muskets and , cartridges was supplied to the fort, which made the Fort Alcatraz and the island most impregnable and thus leaving any plans of the Confederate soldiers of taking control of the San Francisco Bay and California State could be taken under its fold was thwarted.

In March , when there was a threat that the San Francisco Bay would be captured by the Confederates, the schooner , which was to carry out the operation set sail; the U.

Navy prevented the schooner from moving out and captured the crew along with ammunition and 15 confederates who were hiding in the galleys of the ship.

Consequent to this, the importance of Alcatraz increased, more and more confederates and civilians were arrested for reasons of treason and kept in the military prison, and to accommodate the increased number of prisoners, a temporary makeshift wooden prison was built in to the north of the guardhouse.

At the time of end of the Civil War in , there were more than one hundred cannons in the island, which were never put to any aggressive battle, but used only once to provide gun salute in honor of President Abraham Lincoln at his official funeral procession held in San Francisco.

As the civil war ended, the military prison housed Confederate sympathizers who celebrated Lincoln's death. During the Indian Wars that followed the civil war, Indians who went against the government were sent to the Alcatraz prison.

The first hospital on Alcatraz opened in As the number of prisoners to be housed in the citadel increased, more space was built in the form of the Upper Prison, which consisted of three wooden structures, each of two tiers, with the lower prison getting converted as a workshop.

However, both Upper and Lower Prison cells, being made of wood, were frequently subject to fire hazards, and this led to change of the structural form of the barracks; concrete structures were built, replacing the wooden ones.

In , an upper prison building was built at a higher level on the island and replaced the lower prison, with a capacity of inmates.

Alcatraz was barely affected by the San Francisco earthquake which devastated the city, and the prison population dramatically increased as prisoners were temporarily transferred to the island due to damage in the city.

Military Prison solely. Disciplinary Barracks for the U. Many of the former underground tunnels and chambers of the original fort remain today and are still accessible.

This building was modernized in when it reopened as a federal penitentiary, the notorious Alcatraz prison which held America's most ruthless criminals until During the World War I , the citadel was used for incarcerating military prisoners as also German Prisoners of War, which necessitated building of a larger building structure by demolishing the old upper and lower prisons.

A new cell house formed of four cell blocks with cells was built, in , which at that time was reported to be the largest reinforced concrete building in the world; the cells had toilet and electricity facilities.

Even though the prison was a military establishment, it had its fair share of prison escapes. In the prison escape of November 28, , there were four prisoners who escaped in rafts, and they were seen at Sutro Forest.

However, only one was caught and the others escaped. Alcatraz was used to house soldiers who were guilty of crimes as early as By , the fort was the military prison for the Department of the Pacific and housed Civil War prisoners of war POWs as early as that year.

Starting in , the military also held private citizens accused of treason, after the writ of habeas corpus in the United States was suspended.

The number of cells were increased in and the facility became a long-term military prison in During the Civil War, the local federal forces had the onerous task of preventing local fighting between the Union and Confederate supporters who were both part of the population of California , and to protect San Francisco.

For example, in , Asbury Harpending outfitted a schooner , the J. Chapman as a confederate privateer, intending it to prey on the Pacific Mail ships, which often carried cargoes of precious metals.

The plan was interrupted early by the USS Cyane , among others. Consequent to this, more and more were arrested for treason or enemy sympathies. To hold the increased number of prisoners, a temporary makeshift wooden prison was built in to the north of the guardhouse.

In , inch Rodman cannons were added to the fort's armament, and more bombproof barracks built. By end of the Civil War in , there were more than one hundred cannon on the island.

As the civil war ended, the military prison housed Confederate sympathizers who celebrated Lincoln's death. During the Indian Wars that followed the civil war, Indians who went against the government were sent to the Alcatraz prison.

In the citadel was enlarged to provide more accommodation for the families of the military officers working on Alcatraz.

The island continued to develop in the s and in the population of Alcatraz increased dramatically from 26 to over due to the Spanish—American War and placed a demand for new buildings.

The first hospital on Alcatraz opened in As the number of prisoners to be housed in the citadel increased, more space was built in the form of the Upper Prison, which consisted of three wooden structures, each of two tiers, with the lower prison getting converted as a workshop.

However, both Upper and Lower Prison cells, being made of wood, were frequently subject to fire hazards, and this led to change of the structural form of the barracks; concrete structures were built, replacing the wooden ones.

During the Spanish—American War , the number of prisoners increased substantially to by Alcatraz was renamed as the "Pacific Branch, U.

Military Prison" in , and as the importance of the Island citadel became less and less obvious due to modernization of the naval facilities, infantry soldiers were shifted and prison guards brought in their place.

Alcatraz was barely affected by the San Francisco earthquake which devastated the city, and the prison population dramatically increased as prisoners were temporarily transferred to the island due to damage in the city.

Military Prison solely. Disciplinary Barracks for the U. Army," which became popular as "The Rock. Many of the former tunnels and chambers of the original fort remain today and are still accessible.

This building was modernized in when it reopened as a federal penitentiary, the notorious Alcatraz prison which held America's most ruthless criminals until In Alcatraz was renamed the "Pacific Branch, U.

Disciplinary Barracks", to indicate that rehabilitation as well as punishment were to be provided. Soldiers with minor offences could be re-trained and returned to the army.

Although the facility was a military establishment, it had its fair share of prison escapes. In the prison escape of November 28, , there were four prisoners who escaped in rafts, and they were seen at Sutro Forest.

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